Friday, May 22, 2020

Lost in the Sky at Grandpas Cabin Essay - 5748 Words

Lost in the Sky at Grandpas Cabin My grandfather carries on entire conversations while he salts his food. He salts indiscriminately: His corn, his pasta, his fish, even his fruit. He never samples his food before reaching for the shaker: He knows it has yet to be salted to his liking. The one thing my grandfather doesnt salt is his beer. If theres one taste my grandfather likes more than salt, its the wheaty, fizzy flavor of Labatts Blue. It comes in cans at fifty cents a pop. There is a full-sized refrigerator rigged up in the basement of my grandparents summer cottage to accommodate my grandfathers beer. He buys it in boxes of thirty. They never last long. My grandmother will spring for the occasional beer, but her drink†¦show more content†¦Next door resides a variety of relatives, whose precise relations to me are sometimes unclear: they are always characterized by a great or a second or a once removed. Once when I was thirteen, a family came to visit who were relatives of my relatives, a family that included a fine-looking young male specimen with a firm and nicely bronzed chest. Before deciding if it was acceptable to flirt with him, I had to sit down and draw out a family tree to figure out whether he was blood-related. He wasnt. The drinking that transpires next door makes the habits of my grandparents look like childs play. They pass over the beer and wine and head straight for the hard stuff. My grandmas sister, my great-aunt, starts her day off with a scotch and soda. My cousins are mixing margaritas before theyve finished digesting lunch. By the time cocktail hour rolls around, theyre all hammered. Sunset only invites more madness. If my great-aunts middle-aged sons arent setting off $2000 worth of illegal fireworks down at the beach, theyre either rigging raccoon traps or offering driving lessons in my great aunts red Chrysler convertible to any number of prepubescent cousins. The alcohol creates diversion but it also creates tensions. When my grandparents get tipsy, they start snapping and ordering people around. I can see the wine begin to take effect on my grandma: the corners of her mouth pull down into a sour pout. Sometimes she and my grandpa say things thatShow MoreRelatedGrapes of Wrath Essay4878 Words   |  20 Pagescondition help set the mood for the story? As the story begins, Steinbeck describes the land being very dull and dead when he states that â€Å"The wind grew strong and hard and it worked at the rain crust in the corn fields. Little by little the sky was darkened by the mixing dust, and the wind felt over the earth, loosened the dust, and carried away† (2). This description gives insight on how harsh the land is to live on, but most importantly it foreshadows what the Joads and several other familiesRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesRamone, look at those two white guys on the other side of the street. They look friendly. The blond guy with him looks like he would rip your lungs out just to see what would happen. The other one is just as fierce, and hes carrying the radio I lost yesterday; its got my sticker on the side. If Ramone leaves believing that the two guys are friendly because his friend said, They look friendly, then he has violated some principle of logical reasoning. What principle? ï‚ · Reasons should

Friday, May 8, 2020

Symbol and Symbolism of Water in Toni Morrisons Beloved...

The Powerful Symbol of Water in Belovednbsp;nbsp; Water.nbsp; It expresses its’ power in the form of hurricanes and flash floods.nbsp; It displays its gentleness, washing dirt off a childs scabbed knee.nbsp; Water has been used to quench the thirst of many longing throats; and it has been the cause of death to those who unfavorably crossed its path.nbsp; It possesses the power of total destruction, yet it holds the bases of all life.nbsp; Generally, water has symbolized cleanliness and renewal.nbsp; In the Bible, water was used in Baptism, cleansing the soul of original sin and offering a new life in the light of God.nbsp; Water in itself is a natural purifier, washing the dirt from our bodies. Water is a symbol of†¦show more content†¦of the sin of slavery, and gave him a new beginning as a free man in Ohio.nbsp; Morrison states it rained three separate times to make the reader aware that water is the main cause of the transition in Paul D.s life (p.109-10).nbsp; Paul D.s is now a free black man.nbsp; A free black m an traveling to 124. nbsp;Water represents Sethes transition from slavery to freedom. Sethe left Sweet Home pregnant with Denver, and ran off with no ones help (p.224). She ran scared and fearful of the trackers following her trail.nbsp; Sethe met Amy Denver, a white women, on her way to Ohio.nbsp; Amy helped Sethe find the Ohio River.nbsp; The river was one mile of dark water...[and] it looked like home to her and the baby(p.83).nbsp; When Amy left, Sethe traveled downstream and met Stamp Paid.nbsp; He helped her and Denver cross the river to freedom.nbsp; Stamp took Sethe upstream, and just when she thought he was taking her back to Kentucky, he [Stamp Paid] turned the flatbed and crossed the Ohio like a shot (p.91).nbsp; The river locked away the memories of Sweet Home and began her life with Denver at 124.nbsp;nbsp; Water represents the transition of Sethes slave life to her life of freedom.nbsp; Again, water has cleansed the soul of the sin of slavery. The river is now a barrier.nbsp; It separates S ethes life of slavery, to her new life of freedom. nbsp;Water introduces the end of Sethes life withoutShow MoreRelated The Importance of Color in Toni Morrisons Beloved Essay1886 Words   |  8 PagesThe Importance of Color in Toni Morrisons Beloved      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Toni Morrisons Beloved - a novel that addresses the cruelties that result from slavery.   Morrison depicts the African Americans quest for a new life while showing the difficult task of escaping the past.   The African American simply wants to claim freedom and create a sense of community.   In Beloved, the characters suffer not from slavery itself, but as a result of slavery - that is to say the pain occurs as they reconstruct themselvesRead More A Comparison of Christian Symbols in Song of Solomon, Sula, and Beloved2397 Words   |  10 PagesAlthough religion does not exist as a central theme in Toni Morrison’s work, it does set premise for a richly intertwined web of symbolism. Morrison’s novels focus on the lives of characters acting in the present day or recent past. For African Americans, events of the past are a crucial facet of culture as they seek to remember their history, the most influential of these events reaching far back into the years of slavery. Historians argue that for incoming slaves, Christianity offered a religiousRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12166 Words   |  49 Pagesothers in society.  » Back to Table of Contents Themes A Worn Path is Eudora Weltys story of an old African−American womans ritual journey. Its themes are elicited from the symbol of the journey as well as the encounters the old woman has on her journey. Critics have praised Weltys use of language, myth, and symbol in this deceptively simple story. Race and Racism Issues of race often inform Weltys fiction for the fact that so much of her fiction is set in Mississippi during Themes 4 theRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12173 Words   |  49 Pagesgranted others in society.  » Back to Table of Contents Themes A Worn Path is Eudora Weltys story of an old African−American womans ritual journey. Its themes are elicited from the symbol of the journey as well as the encounters the old woman has on her journey. Critics have praised Weltys use of language, myth, and symbol in this deceptively simple story. Race and Racism Issues of race often inform Weltys fiction for the fact that so much of her fiction is set in Mississippi during Themes 4 the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Thorn Queen Chapter Nineteen Free Essays

I returned to my castle in shock-and in a downpour. My control of water let me shift the rain away from me, but after a while, I didn’t feel like wasting the mental effort on it. It felt kind of good after such a hot day, and besides, I had a few other things on my mind. We will write a custom essay sample on Thorn Queen Chapter Nineteen or any similar topic only for you Order Now Like if it was going to rain every time I got aroused. That was not cool. I guessed I could handle it so long as it rained other times as well. I didn’t want the connection to be so obvious. Hey, it’s raining! The queen must have gotten laid. Ooh†¦is that hail? Must have been into some kinky shit today†¦. I was also debating whether or not having a guy stick his hand up your skirt and get you off was technically cheating or not. Okay, I supposed there wasn’t much â€Å"technically† about it. I was getting caught up in gender stereotypes. If I’d gotten him off-say, like, by going down on him-there would have been no question of infidelity. So, this was no different. Fuck. How had it happened? One minute we’d been arguing†¦the next? Grope central. There’d been emotion and magic, and it had all happened so fast. I shivered, thinking of all the warnings about using strong magic. Was that to blame? Or just my own weakness? And at the same time, I couldn’t also help but think that strong magic could solve a few of my problems. Excepting, of course, the problem of whether or not I should tell Kiyo what had happened between Dorian and me†¦ â€Å"Your majesty!† Nia went crazy when she saw my drenched state. She had a hundred remedies for me, but all I wanted was a simple towel and the jeans and shirt I’d arrived in earlier. Waiting for the servants to draw hot baths around here took too much time and effort; I could get back to Tucson and into my own shower or sauna much more easily. And after still being unnerved by Dorian, I was particularly anxious to return to what I saw as safety. Though lately, I was starting to think no place was safe anymore. Before leaving, I exchanged brief updates with Rurik and Shaya. I told Rurik that we had a date for demon hunting, and that Jasmine would indeed be going with us. His feelings on that were mixed. He knew her power was useful, but secretly-or, well, not so secretly-he was part of the camp that felt I should kill her. He seemed a little reassured about her, at least, because Girard had brought the custom cuffs as promised. They provided greater mobility for her but were even more limiting for magic. Judging from Jasmine’s dismayed reaction, Rurik felt they’d been successful. Well, that was something, I supposed. And from the look on Shaya’s face, Dorian’s help with the ore was a good thing too-even if it had come with strings attached. â€Å"That was very kind of my lord,† she said. Both Shaya and Rurik often used the honorific â€Å"my lord† when discussing Dorian, as though he were still their master. I considered their old loyalty endearing but wondered if they’d ever feel like they truly worked for me. â€Å"It’s expedited things immensely. You can’t imagine how quickly things will move once the ore is processed.† She grinned, eyes gleaming as all sorts of plans and organizational thoughts swirled in her mind. â€Å"You must have been very pleased at what my lord did for you.† Well, â€Å"pleased† was one way of looking at it, I supposed. Oh, and I was happy about the expedited ore too. A strange feeling settled over me, that same one I got each time Dorian did something nice for me-sexual gratification aside. I had no idea what his role in my life was anymore, save that he was helping me a lot. Judging from Shaya’s face, this was a big favor he’d done for me. An idea for repayment came to me. â€Å"Shaya†¦is Girard still here?† She nodded. â€Å"I gave him a room for the night, so that he wouldn’t have to travel in the rain. Is that all right?† â€Å"Yeah, yeah. I just want to talk to him for a sec.† She led me to his room, and like before, he was overjoyed and overeager to see me. Seeing him reminded me of Leith, which gave me a small pang of regret. I still felt badly about what had happened with the Rowan prince, but there was nothing to be done about it. I couldn’t return his feelings. Girard, fortunately, was a different matter. He wanted prestige and position for his talents, and I was more than willing to give that after explaining to him the project I wanted to commission. â€Å"Yes, your majesty. I can most certainly do that. Why, I can start sketching right now.† No doubt he was happy to work on something that wasn’t part of Katrice’s woodland animal collection. I left him to it, gushing with praise and how much it would mean to me. Girard was a nice guy, despite his ambition, and I decided I’d rather surround myself with those wanting job promotion over getting me into bed. I returned to Tucson at last, grateful to find the house quiet. Tim was out, but he’d left me macaroni and cheese-the good homemade kind with bread crumbs on top-and a note: Bitch receptionist called and wants to make sure you don’t forget your job tomorrow. I hadn’t forgotten the job tomorrow, but the reminder was a good one with as much as had been going on lately. One of the cats rubbed against my leg as I microwaved my dinner, and I absentmindedly scratched her on the head, wishing it was actually Kiyo’s fox form circling my ankles. I didn’t like the way he and I had left things, even if they’d ostensibly been friendly. There was still tension between us, and I couldn’t shake the feeling that he just wasn’t understanding me lately†¦and that Dorian was. Argh. Dorian. As I tossed my clothes on the bathroom floor-including that damned thong-I couldn’t help but think of him again. Stop it, Eugenie. You’re obsessing. Surely†¦surely I would have said no if we hadn’t been interrupted earlier, right? Right? And Kiyo, Kiyo†¦what was I going to tell Kiyo? Just because we were having friction in our relationship, it didn’t mean I had license to do what I’d done today. I had no respect for lies or any other subtle dishonesty. I didn’t like that behavior in others. I didn’t like it in myself. But after standing in scalding water for twenty minutes, no real answers about anything came to my mind. I finally emerged, my skin sufficiently plump and pink, and toweled off. After that, it was into comfy pajamas: blue and gray flannel shorts and a white cotton tank top. It might have been raining in the Thorn Land, but here it was dry and hot. Night had cooled the air somewhat, and I’d opened all the windows to air out the house. As a light breeze blew in, it took everything in me not to start tinkering around with the air. I could sense every particle, and the thought of controlling them sent a shiver through me. No, I scolded myself. I’d done enough today. I needed to have a no-magic-in-Tucson rule, I decided. Establishing that magic and men were issues that were not going to be solved tonight, I set out to work on another. It wasn’t quite ten yet, which meant Roland would be up. Sprawling on the couch in front of the breezy patio screen door, I dialed him on my phone. â€Å"Eugenie,† he said with delight. â€Å"We’ve been wondering what happened to you. You haven’t been returning calls. Your mother was worried, but I told her you were probably just busy.† I smiled. It was nice to have Roland in my life, someone who understood the ups and downs of this job. â€Å"I have been. Really busy.† I almost started to offer him the overflow of jobs I’d had Lara turn down for me and stopped myself at the last minute. If he knew I wasn’t keeping up with my work, it would only trigger an alarm for him and subject me to questions I wasn’t ready to answer. â€Å"Did you ever talk to Art and Abigail?† he asked. â€Å"Yeah,† I said, â€Å"and that’s actually why I was calling you. I think†¦well, I think they’re trafficking in gentry girls or something.† There were several moments of silence. â€Å"Trafficking? What does that mean, exactly?† â€Å"It means I think they’re abducting girls and†¦I don’t know. Either pimping them out or selling them or something equally disgusting. It’s like a fairy sex trade.† One of the cats, a calico, came and made herself comfortable on my stomach. â€Å"Eugenie†¦I’ve known Art for almost ten years. I’ve known Abigail longer. What you’re saying is absurd. You have to be getting bad information.† â€Å"They’ve both been sighted in the Otherworld, right around where their gate opens! I even talked to one girl who all but identified Art! She was totally traumatized, Roland. And both Art and Abigail live better than they should be†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"That’s not evidence,† he said. â€Å"They’re probably doing good business.† â€Å"In a town that size? Even with a gate like that, they can’t have enough work to afford the stuff they have. You and I have a ton more jobs than they do, and we don’t live that well.† â€Å"It’s a moot point. This whole thing is far-fetched, and your evidence is sketchy. I mean, have you seen gentry girls tied up in his house?† â€Å"No,† I admitted. â€Å"Largely because he won’t ever let me inside. Which is also suspicious.† â€Å"No, Eugenie, it’s really not.† Roland sounded tired. â€Å"Look, it sounds like all you’ve got is circumstantial gentry evidence. And you know how they are.† â€Å"I know that their people are being taken against their will and possibly having horrible things done to them.† â€Å"Key words: their people.† â€Å"Are you saying it’s okay for girls to be sold into a sex trade? After what happened to Mom?† â€Å"How can you ask me that?† he exclaimed. â€Å"But this isn’t the same thing. We’re not police who work both worlds. We protect humans. There must be someone over there whose job it is to protect them.† There is, I thought. Me. â€Å"Can you at least talk to Art?† I asked. â€Å"And what? Ask him if he’s kidnapping gentry girls?† â€Å"Well†¦maybe you could pose it a bit more delicately.† I squelched a yowl of pain as the cat leapt up off me and onto the back of the couch. Her hair puffed up, and she twitched her tail in agitation. Not surprising. Both dogs had just entered the room. â€Å"I can’t ask him that,† said Roland. â€Å"And what if he says yes? Then what are you going to do?† Dorian’s words came back to me. Kill them. â€Å"Look, I don’t know yet, but I just need to find out if-â€Å" I heard a low growl from one of the dogs and was about to yell at them to knock it off. The cats and dogs didn’t usually fight, but every once in a while, there would be a brawl. I couldn’t see the dogs, though, and the bristling calico’s attention seemed to be on the screen door, not the floor. I sat up and saw the dogs sitting right in front of the door, staring out into the night as well. â€Å"Eugenie? Are you still there?† â€Å"Yeah, hang on a sec.† Balancing the phone on my shoulder, I stood up and instinctively reached for my weapons, which were on the coffee table. I shoved the wand and my silver athame under the elastic waistband of my shorts and took the gun and iron athame with my hands. One of the dogs growled again, and I slowly approached them at the door. â€Å"Eugenie? What’s going on?† Roland’s voice was worried now. â€Å"I’m going to have to call you back.† I managed to disconnect the phone and drop it on the floor without losing the athame. Outside, the night was still, the only noises coming from the wind in the trees and the faint sounds of traffic on the far side of my quiet neighborhood. I closed my eyes a moment, reaching out to search for anything that didn’t feel right in this world. Some shamans had this ability, but not many. The more time I spent in the Otherworld and among gentry, the more developed my senses became. Finally, I caught it. The sense of something Otherworldly. The animals, God love them, had noticed before me. Whatever this interloper was, it was keeping to the farthest edges of the house’s property. It had apparently been lurking for a while, which seemed odd. â€Å"Ah,† I realized with a soft chuckle. â€Å"Stopped by the wards, huh, you son of a bitch?† I’d had a witch lay protective lines and spells all around the house when the attacks on me first started. It was kind of a magical home-security system. It wouldn’t keep out everything, but it definitely thinned out a lot of my nuisances. I could have simply ignored whatever was out there, but the idea of Otherworldly creatures loose in my neighborhood didn’t sit well with me. Sliding open the door, I slipped outside, every nerve in my body on high alert. I walked the perimeter of my backyard, keeping inside the ward’s lines. My house was on a cul-de-sac, backing up to a small stretch of open, scrubby land before giving way to the next neighborhood over. I doubted whatever this was would be out in the front of the house, where it would be in sight of neighbors. Ah, no-not an it. They. I could sense more than one. Standing on tiptoe to peer over the wooden fence, I nearly missed his eyes on my first sweep. A rock elemental-that is, one of the gentry who lacked the strength to travel to my world in his full form. He was blocky and unwieldy looking, his stone body mottled black and white. I had only a second to make my assessment before he charged. His weight and strength cracked the wooden fence, and then-he hit the ward. It was like an invisible wall that bounced him back. His disorientation gave me what I needed. I dropped the gun and reached for my wand. Silver bullets weren’t as effective against gentry as steel ones anyway, and I certainly wasn’t going to fire off shots and possibly get the police called if I could help it. I channeled my will into the wand, ripping open a path to the Otherworld. My snake tattoo burned on my arm as I summoned the power of Hecate. I recited the incantation to finish the ritual. The elemental felt the magic of the banishing seize him but couldn’t fight it. He was too weak. In a moment, he dissolved from this world, sent back to his own, leaving only a pile of rubble behind. Another shape appeared beside where he’d been, and I saw the dim lighting shine off water. Another gentry who hadn’t been able to cross in his true body. He’d appeared as a water elemental, a man-shaped body of liquid that dripped and sloshed with each step. Stupid, stupid, I thought. Whoever he was should have known better. I didn’t need a wand for this. My own magic would rip him apart- A hand suddenly jerked me backward, and I felt a knife at my throat. The hand gripping it was solid and flesh but tingling with magic. A powerful gentry, then. One with enough power to cross my wards and come over in body. Without hesitation, I kicked backward, dodging out of his grasp skillfully enough that the blade only nicked me. I turned to face him, glad I’d held on to the iron athame. He was no one I knew, young and good-looking, even with a scar on his cheek. He was well-muscled from physical activity, and the leather armor he wore over his red tunic suggested a possible military or guarding profession back in the Otherworld. In a weird flash, Jasmine’s words came back to me. I know the difference between a bunch of gross beggars and trained soldiers. A coincidence, I decided. Any gentry brave enough to come seek me in my own world would likely have to be a good fighter. We circled, and there was a small smile on his face as he waited for an opening. I wasn’t afraid. One-on-one combat I could handle, and I had long since developed the ability to banish while fighting. It was tricky but hardly impossible. Of course, as he lunged and I ducked, I realized I didn’t need anything so complicated. Almost like an inhalation of breath, I sucked the air from around us, creating a miniwhirlwind that pulled the dust and sand from within my yard. I blasted it forward at him. He cried out as the sand blinded his eyes and immediately started rubbing them-which wouldn’t do him any favors. I was about to start the banishing when I faintly heard the sound of chanting and a tingle of shamanic magic. Startled, I turned to find the source and instead saw the water elemental come charging through the opening in the fence his friend had made. Someone had broken the wards. I held out my iron athame to block him, though I knew it would only give me a few seconds. That was all I needed as I began to work the water magic that would tear him apart. A blow to my back suddenly shoved me forward, straight into him. Despite being made of water, he was solid, and his hands instantly grabbed hold of me. I twisted my head back and saw that the other gentry had recovered himself enough to come striding forward, though I could see tears streaking his face from where the sand had stung his eyes. I tried breaking free of the elemental’s grip but couldn’t match that physical force. Again, I summoned water magic and heard him groan in pain as his substance began to rip apart. Then, the other gentry was on me, punching me again and breaking my concentration. He started to reach around me once more with the copper blade, and then I heard a startled cry of pain from him as he was pulled away from me. I didn’t look back to see what had happened but instead completed the magic on the water elemental. He exploded in a downpour that soaked me-great, twice in one day-and I immediately turned to see what else had happened. The other gentry was distracted, squaring off with someone else: Roland. Roland’s own athame was out in his left hand, and he was simply relying on the strength of his other fist-which was considerable-to sock the gentry in the face. The gentry was strong, though, and got a few good blows in on Roland. Seeing my stepfather take those punches kindled an anger in me. Rather than begin a banishing, I called to the air again, sucking it from around the gentry just as I had Ysabel. Eyes widening, he dropped the blade, his hands going to his throat in an instinctive gesture to draw breath. There was none to be had, though. I leapt on him, knocking him to the ground and delivering a solid punch to the face in exchange for what he’d done to Roland. Around us, I felt the tingling of a banishing. Roland was opening up a hole to the Otherworld. He chanted the words and then snapped, â€Å"Eugenie, get away!† I did, jerking backward lest I get sucked in with the choking gentry. Power crackled around him, and a moment later, he disappeared, shoved back to his own world. Silence fell. I was sitting on the now-muddy ground, soaking wet with my heart pounding. Roland walked over and extended his hand to help me up. â€Å"What are you doing here?† I asked. He snorted. â€Å"You can’t end a call like that and not expect me to show up.† â€Å"True,† I said. I was weak and woozy from the combat and the magic, and my bare legs were skinned up from the fight. I’d need some soap and antiseptic. â€Å"Thanks.† Roland shrugged, not needing my thanks. Even in the dimness, I could see the angry look in his eyes. â€Å"What the hell did you think you were doing?† Seeing as I’d just done several things, I wasn’t entirely sure which he was referring to. â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"That.† He pointed to the spot where we’d banished the gentry. â€Å"You were†¦you were using magic to choke him!† â€Å"I was keeping him subdued while you banished him,† I growled, unwilling to admit I was kind of freaked out myself. It had all happened so fast. My only impulse had been to incapacitate the gentry. The means had just sort of happened. Realizing what I’d done-again-gave me a sick feeling. I’d sworn I’d never do it. â€Å"Pinning him with the athame would have worked! Where the hell did you learn to do that?† â€Å"I’ve picked up a few things here and there.† Roland’s face was a mask of fury. â€Å"You have no business using that kind of magic, Eugenie. None.† My own anger was growing. â€Å"In case you’ve forgotten, that magic is in my blood.† â€Å"No,† he said softly. â€Å"I haven’t forgotten. Which is why it’s so important you don’t use it. What else can you do? How long have been using this kind of power?† â€Å"It’s not important. I can do a few things-things that have kept me alive when assholes like this come try to rape me-and it’s not a problem. I can control it.† â€Å"You need to stop this. You need to stay away from the gentry. You’re getting too involved with their world, with their magic†¦.† â€Å"It’s part of who I am. You can’t change that. And if you didn’t want me taking drastic steps, then why’d you break the wards?† Roland frowned. â€Å"I didn’t. I thought that gentry had.† â€Å"No, he crossed them, but his buddies were locked out-for a while, at least. Then I heard someone undoing them. It was our kind of magic. I thought it was you.† â€Å"Why on earth would I do that?† â€Å"Then some other shaman did.† The accusing tone in my voice provided no need for elaboration. â€Å"Stop this. Art and Abigail aren’t out doing what you think. They certainly wouldn’t break the wards so gentry could attack you. You think they’re out in your neighborhood right now? One of the gentry must have done it. You were probably distracted.† â€Å"Have you lost all faith in me? All you keep saying tonight is that I’m wrong, that I’m mistaken. Roland, I know what shamanic magic feels like. Just like I know what gentry magic feels like, especially considering-as you keep pointing out-I use it all the time.† I’m not sure which part of my tirade did it, but I could tell he was done with the conversation. There was something weary in his face that made him look older than he was. â€Å"I’m not going to stand out here in the dark and argue with you, Eugenie. All I can ask is that if you can’t control yourself for my sake, then think of your mother. Otherwise, do what you want.† â€Å"Roland†¦Ã¢â‚¬  But he was already walking away into the night, and as I watched the man I’d always regarded as my father leave, I uneasily wondered whose daughter I truly was. How to cite Thorn Queen Chapter Nineteen, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Parallelization of Pagerank and Hits Algorithm on Cuda Essay Example

Parallelization of Pagerank and Hits Algorithm on Cuda Paper Page Rank algorithm and HITS algorithm are widely known approaches to determine the importance and popularity of web pages. Due to large number of documents available on World Wide Web, huge amount of computations are required to determine the rank of web pages making it very time consuming. Researchers have devoted much attention In parallelizing Pageant on PC Cluster, Grids, and Multi- core processors Like Cell Broadband Engine to overcome this Issue but with little or no success. In this paper, we discuss the Issues In porting these algorithms on Compute unified Device Architecture (CODA) and Introduce efficient parallel implementation of these algorithms on CUD by exploiting the block structure of web, which not only cut down the computation time but also significantly reduces of the cost of hardware required (only few thousands). 1 . Introduction In present days, the unceasing growth of World Wide Web has lead to a lot of research in page ranking algorithms used by the search engines to provide the most relevant results to the user for any particular query. The dynamic and diverse nature of web graph further exaggerates the challenges in achieving the optimum results. Web link analysis provides a way to order the web pages by studying the link structure of web graphs. Pageant and HITS (Hyperlink Induced Topic Search) are two such most popular algorithms widely used by the current search engines either In same or modified form to rank the documents based on the ink structure of the documents. Pageant, originally introduced by Bring and Page is based on the fact that a web page is more important if many other web pages link to it. We will write a custom essay sample on Parallelization of Pagerank and Hits Algorithm on Cuda specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Parallelization of Pagerank and Hits Algorithm on Cuda specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Parallelization of Pagerank and Hits Algorithm on Cuda specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In core, it contains continuously iterating over the web graph until the Rank assigned to all of the pages converges to a stable value. In contrast to Pageant, a similar HITS algorithm, developed by Glibber [1 1], ranks the documents on the basis of two scores which it assigns to a particular set of documents dependent on a specific query, although basis for computation are same for both. Enormous size of web [1 5] makes the need of fast Implementation of these algorithms very clear. Till date, several approaches have been designed to accelerate this algorithm Like exploiting the block structure of web [6], running on parallel environment like PC cluster [4, 5, 10] but they have brought their own overheads like nudge nearer cost Ana approximate result TTS. Some research NAS also Eden cone on implementing this algorithm on Multi-core processors like Cell Broadband Engine [9] but due to the issues involved like random read and writes from large memory, this has lead to even poorer performance. In [9], it is shown that its implementation on Cell is 22 times slower than Intel Xenon Quad Core 2. GHz. Parallel implementation of these algorithms involves issues like no specific order in the number of pages that points to a particular page and randomness in the links of the nodes hindering the load balancing, which is the basis of any parallel implementation. This paper addresses these issues in an interesting manner and proposes an innovative way of exploiting the block structure of web existing at much lower level. Our approach in parallel implementation of these algorithms on Invalids Multi-core CUD Architecture not only reduces the computation time but also requires much cheaper rearward. In our study, we have used the standard input of approximately one million documents generated through the widely accepted Hebraic framework from publicly available datasets in [16]. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes block structure of web, issues involved in porting Pageant on CUD architecture, the proposed parallel implementation and results. Section 3 discusses parallel implementation of HITS algorithm and results. And finally section 4 ends with conclusion. 2. Pageant 2. 1 . Algorithm Let Rank(p) denotes the rank of web page p from set of all web pages P. Let Sp bet a set of all web pages that points to page p and Nu be the outgrew of the page u ? Sp. Then the importance given by a page u to the page p due to its link is measured as Rank(u)/Nu. So total importance given to a page is the sum of all the importance due to incoming link to page p. This is computed iteratively n times for each page rank to converge. This iteration is as follows. V e , ? 2. 2. Sequential implementation of Pageant Algorithm 1: , 2: 3: 4: 5: 7: 8: 9: 10: V ,11: 6: 32 h h 2. 3. Comparison with Related Works Where d is the damping factor from the random surfer model [1]. The range for alee of d is from Tot 1. D is the probability that a random surfer will get bored at page p and will Jump to another random page with probability (1- d). We will be using 0. 85 as the value of d further in this paper as given in [1]. The use of d insures the convergence of Pageant algorithm [5]. The input file containing the web graph s o a De converted to Dollar link structure Tile I . Nils Tile consist AT all nodes as numbers, with their number of outguesses and the pages (also in the numerical form) to which it points to as shown in Fig 1 . The above equation (1) is the Jacobin iterative solution to system of linear equations. The extensive use of Jacobin method is because it can be easily parallelized, as the calculation of the rank of a page is dependent on the initial rank of pages. There is another efficient method to solve system of linear equations called Gauss-Sidle method. In Gauss-Sidle method for calculating the rank of page p in the iteration I, the recently calculated rank of the all pages before p is used and previous iterations rank is used for pages after page p. The iterative formula is as follows: V e , = 1- * + (2) The main advantage of this algorithm is its usage of less space during calculation. In this only one array containing the rank of pages is used and both retrieving and updating of pages rank can be done on the same array. But the disadvantage is that it cannot be easily parallelized. Since Pageant involves huge amount of computation, therefore many researchers have attempted with their own approaches towards its parallel implementation. Here we list most notable works and discuss the advantage of our approach over their work. 1. Block rank: This algorithm by Wavelike et al. [6], splits the web graph into blocks according to their domain and then calculates Pageant of each block locally. It then uses an approximation to merge these results and calculate global Pageant. This implementation increases the performance by 2 times. 2. Partition-Based Parallel Pageant Algorithm: Orangutans and Namesakes [3] discusses about three algorithms and their implementation on PC cluster. He compares PC cluster implementation of block based algorithm, split accumulate algorithm and partition based parallel algorithm, with results favoring last implementation. . Pageant Computation Using PC Cluster: This is another implementation by Orangutans and Namesakes [4] in which they divide the input graph into equal sets and lactate them on each PC cluster nodes. Each cluster node solves them for 5 iterations locally and then updates the new rank on other nodes. This implementation achieves 4 times speed up. 4. Another efficient paral lel implementation of Pageant on PC cluster by Schoolhouses et al. [5] achieves gain of 10 times by using block structure of web page and reformulating the algorithm by combining Jacobin and Gauss-Sidle method. Most researchers have implemented Pageant algorithm on PC cluster, which increases the efficiency but not in comparison to the added hardware cost. Very less research, with success has been one in the field of implementing Pageant algorithm on rapid evolving multi core architectures. The implementation on multi core 6 SPUN based Cell BE has shown that ten Pageant Algorithm runs 22 times slowly. We odometer Implement It on more efficient SIMI based multi core CUD architecture, containing large number of processors, using an entirely innovative approach. Our approach also exploits the block structure of web but dont involve approximation like in [6]. We further show that if we merge both the use of PC cluster implementation and CUD device a huge increase in performance can be achieved in comparison to ere small increase in hardware cost. 2. 4. The Block Structure of Web Graph 2. 3. As discussed in section 2. 3, several researches have been done on utilizing the block structure of web for efficient implementation of Pageant. They reveal that in most cases the numbers of intra-host links are much larger than the inter-host links leading to creation of block structures in the web graph. Here, we take it to a further extent and analyses this property in a more magnified view which reveals that this kind of block structure also exists at lower level of hierarchy. For instance, most of the inks for a certain block of pages say BBC. Ex./docs are in and around BBC. Ex./docs. For studying the structure of web, the link structured file, generated using Hebraic, has been used. To visualize it further, we construct dot plots such that if there is a link from node J to node I, then there is black point in the graph at (I, J). Since, our full dataset is too large to observe the individual points, a slice of graph are shown in Figure 2. The following things are noticeable: 1. There is a dense diagonal line indicating that most of the pages link in and around themselves. 2. There are several blocks of points which show that a certain blocks of pages have large number of intra-linkages between them. This clearly shows that the block structure at domain or host level is also prevalent at smaller level. 3. There are several horizontal lines highlighting that some blocks of pages are pointed by a narrow set of pages and few isolated vertical lines that indicate that a certain block of pages points to a very narrow set of pages. . There are number of isolated points which highlight the degree of randomness in the link structure. 2. 5. CUD Architecture CAUDAL, introduced by INVALID, is a general purpose parallel computing that leverages the parallel compute engine in INVALID Spies to solve many complex computational problems in a more efficient way than on a CAP]. These Spies are used as coprocessor to assist CPU for compu tational intensive task. More details about this architecture can be explored at [10]. Here, we highlight the features that need special mention in relation to our work. 4. SIMI Architecture: Employs Single Instruction Multiple Thread Architecture leading to the execution of a single instruction by a huge number of threads. Asynchronous Concurrent Execution: In order to facilitate concurrent execution between host and evolve, Kernel launches are asynchronous I. E. Control Is returned to ten most Athena before the device has completed the requested task. Warps: A warp is a group of 32 parallel threads which executes one common instruction at a time, so full efficiency is realized when all 32 threads of a warp agree on their execution path. Memory Coalescing: Global memory bandwidth is most efficiently used if the simultaneous memory accesses by threads in a half-warp (during the execution of a single read or rite instruction) are such that they can be coalesced into a single memory transaction of 32, 64, or 128 bytes, leading to minimum access time. 2. 6. Porting issues on CUD Architecture Porting issues with the Pageant algorithm are mainly concerned with hardware restrictions of CUD architecture. CUD demands the execution of all threads in a warp to be similar for the thread to execute in parallel, hence, if the execution paths of threads in a warp become divergent then it causes the CUD to suspend the parallel execution of threads and executes them sequentially (or become serialized), hence decreasing throughput. As he number of industries of nodes can be very dissimilar, the loop involved in calculation, iterating for number of industries, can make the threads control flow to become divergent or different from other threads. Another constraint of the device is related to memory accesses. Due to the huge size of link structure arrays containing the industries and rank of nodes, it has to be stored in the global memory. But the latency of global memory is very low, hundreds of memory cycles, compared to shared memory. The protocol followed by the CUD architecture for memory transaction ensures that all the threads referencing memory in the same segment re serviced simultaneously. Therefore bandwidth will be used most efficiently only if, simultaneous memory accesses by threads in a half warp belongs to a segment. But due to uneven and random nature of industries of nodes the memory reference sometimes become non coalesced hindering the simultaneous service of memory transactions leading to the wastage of memory bandwidth. There are different structures of input file for the Pageant algorithm. It can be either nodes with their industries or nodes with their outguesses. The problem with the outgrew is that while iterating through the list of outguesses of a particular node, calculation squires dividing the initial Pageant of the node with its number of outguesses and adding the result to the memory location for storing the new Pageant of the node which it points to. The pseudo code for parallel implementation of this on CUD architecture is described in pseudopodia [1]. : ? Result: Since, step 2 in [1] will be simultaneously executed by large number of threads, this may lead to conflict between them while updating the same memory location, producing unpredictable results. Though this problem can be solved using atomic operation, but there are no atomic operations for floating point values yet incorporated in the architecture. Hence the input files format should be, each node with their number of industries and a list of nodes pointing to the node. The outgrew of each node required in calculation can be stored in a separate file or in the sane file. The structure of input file used in our experiment is shown in the Figure When this implementation is executed on the device then the running time is more than the sequential implementation on the hardware specified in section 2. . The reason for this can be easily attributed to porting issues we mentioned in section 2. 6. 2. 7. 1 . Solving the problem of non coalesced memory access Figure 2: Topple of all links One of the reasons for poor performance of naive implementation is that the global memory accesses were not coalesced. As discussed while considering the porting issues in section 2. 6, for better p erformance, the simultaneous memory accesses done by all threads in a half warp should belong to same segment for lesser transactions to occur. The Figure 1: Input File Structure The problem with implementation of Guidelines for calculating Pageant is that for calculating the rank of a page we need the new ranks of all pages before it, but due to personalization the calculation of some of them may e still in process. This happens especially for threads belonging to same block, as all threads in a block execute in parallel. 2. 7. Parallel implementation using Jacobin method The naive implementation involves each thread is assigned one node for the calculation. The thread iterates though can I TTS Menageries Detecting tenet Nominal rank Ana teen Livelong It Walt outgrew and adding it up. Finally multiply it with the damping factor d and add (1 d) to the sum. The initial Pageant before starting to iterate is kept 1 . The decent number of iteration is 32 as normally the algorithm converges in 32 iteration. Figure 3: Topple of links calculated on device nodes generally link in the locality, with few links to farther nodes as described in section 2. 4. To improve the rank calculation of a node, say p, we process only those nodes on kernel which belong to locality of p, determined by the range. And the rest of the nodes are processed on host processor as shown in Figure 4. So we create two link structured input file, one to be processed by kernel, which contains nodes lying in locality, and other contains rest of the nodes to be processed on host processor. 2. 7. 2. Solving the problem of divergence in control flow Another season for poor performance of naive implementation is the divergence in the program control flow. The main problem causing divergence is uneven number of industries, which causes different threads to end up with different number of iteration, also discussed in section 2. . The solution to this problem is to allow maximum possible threads to iterate same number of times, so that the program execution path does not diverge much from the normal flow. For this we calculate the average of all nodes number of industries for the kernel link structured input file. And then each thread is allowed to calculate up to the average number of industries if it is less t han average number) and the rest calculation is done simultaneously on the host processor. Those points that are included in the calculation of rank on the device. Figure 5: Topple of links calculated on host The number of calculation on host can be further decreased if we use some constant multiple of the average value. This constant for peak performance is different for different input graphs depending on the distribution of the number of industries among the nodes. This constant if too large can also increase the number of threads going divergent. But if perfect balance exist between the increase in time due to increase in calculation on the host processor and number of threads going divergent, then further decreases in time can be achieved. This constant can be called as average factor which is a function of the distribution of number of industries among nodes and block size. The final implementation is shown in Parallel Algorithm 1. Figure 4: Processing the input File The total number of calculations done on host processor is considerably decreased. But in order to increase the performance the block structure of web can be exploited. As we showed in section 2. There exists block structure even at small level. So in our next improvement instead of calculating the average of the industries of all nodes, we divide all the nodes into blocks.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Autobiography of Malcolm X essays

Autobiography of Malcolm X essays Review of the Autobiography of Malcolm X The Autobiography of Malcolm X as told by Alex Haley is about a man who changed the history of America. Malcolm (Little) X preached what he believed about racism, discrimination, and segregation. He went through many changes in his fight for equality. The three transformations that really changed the way Malcolm thought and preached where his transformation in prison, his transformation into the Islamic religion (following Elijah Muhammad), and the biggest transformation of all, his pilgrimage to Mecca. In all of Malcolm actions, teachings and transformations we learn different points of view and we get a good look at different aspects of events. The life of Malcolm (Little) X as told in his autobiography should be read by all. Malcolm X while in prison completed his first transformation. Like many great figures and history makers had a low point in is life. At this time Malcolm was into drugs, hustling, women and money. He became so dependant on making a lot of money he and some of his friends decided to rob the house of an old white man. They were caught for this crime and were not only charged with this crime but were also charged with having sex with white women. Malcolm and his friend "Shorty" were sentenced to six years in prison. The two white women that were Malcolm and Shortys accomplices were sentenced to a year in jail. During the first couple days of prison Malcolm was coming off a drug high and was having withdrawals. These withdrawals led Malcolm into solitary confinement for two months. When he was let out of his chamber he met the man that would later be responsible for Malcolms transformation. This man was a follower of the nation of Islam and the great Alijah Muhammad. Malcol m learned a great deal form him. This shows us that even in the worst of circumstances we can learn and become better. This transformation was a great test for Malcolm ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Chemical Physical Changes

Chemical Physical Changes Chemical and physical changes are related to chemical and physical properties. Chemical Changes Chemical changes take place at the molecular level. A chemical change produces a new substance.  Another way to think of it is that a chemical change accompanies a chemical reaction.  Examples of chemical changes include combustion (burning), cooking an egg, rusting of an iron pan, and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to make salt and water. Physical Changes Physical changes are concerned with energy and states of matter. A physical change does not produce a new substance, although the starting and ending materials may look very different from each other. Changes in state or phase (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation) are physical changes. Examples of physical changes include crushing a can, melting an ice cube, and breaking a bottle. How to Tell Chemical Physical Changes Apart A chemical change makes a substance that wasnt there before. There may be clues that a chemical reaction took places, such as light, heat, color change, gas production, odor, or sound. The starting and ending materials of a physical change are the same, even though they may look different.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Social Phobia Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Social Phobia - Article Example What makes social phobia different from other kinds of anxiety disorder is that individuals affected by the disorder are always concerned with the feelings of other people towards their attitude. This makes them to be cautious with their selves and in the process affects their attitude and behavior as they always want to impress audiences around them. The disorder can be diagnosed at early childhood, but for researchers who have studied it, they say the disorder always affects individuals who are in their youth. The causative agents of the disorder are always assumed to be over protective parents of limited social opportunities. Individuals who are suffering from the disorder can get a remedy for their situation by making a visit to a psychologist, however learning to socialize more and confronting fears are also steps to help in putting the disorder under control. The disorder can be passed on from one generation to the next by being inherited from parents or relatives. This makes it difficult to be diagnosed as there are no known signs and symptoms that have been established. In addition, the disorder can be caused due to environmental factors which are responsible for shaping the attitudes and behaviors of individuals within a society. Nordqvist, C, Nordqvist. "What Is Social Anxiety Disorder? What Causes Social Anxiety Disorder? ." Medical News Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2014.